Ch'ing or Manchu Dynasty - (Term Date) Glossary of Antique Terms C

Ch'ing or Manchu Dynasty - (Term, Date) (A.D. 1644-1912): Ch'ing means pure, clear. At first there is considerable territorial expansion: Tibet, Nepal, Korea, Mongolia, Manchuria, Turkestan, are all part of the empire. At the same time it is an antiquarian age, scholars devote incredible energy to the compilation of lengthy encyclopaedias and works of learning, there is much looking back, collecting, copying. In painting, the influence of the West is considerable (shading and perspective); in literature, the novel is notable. During the K'ang-hsi period European interest in China and Chinese art reaches its peak ('Chinoiserie'); and under this emperor there is a great revival of ceramics (which had declined at the end of the Ming era) with the rebuilding of the imperial factories at Ching-te-chen c. 1680. For many the most admired wares are those small monochrome pieces that recapture the pure forms of Sung; but there are new colours, turquoise-blue, sang-de-boeuf (ox-blood), many others; and, most familiar of all, the muchadmired underglazed blue and enamelled wares, the popular blue-and-white 'ginger jars', famille verte, famille noire, and, later (from the 1720's), famille rose (made for export only). The European market becomes more and more demanding; everything is copied, faience, Venetian glass, Delft pottery, Limoges enamels, not to mention the wares of former dynasties; and, of course, armorial china, European motifs, religious (Christian) decoration. But under three reigns (K'ang-hsi, Yung-cheng, Ch'ien-lung-i.e. from 1662 to 1795) standards remain high, craftsmanship superb; not till the end of the eighteenth century does a decline set in, and by then Europe could supply her own needs from her own factories

China and the West: A Short History of Their Contact from Ancient Times to the Fall of the Manchu DynastyChina and the West: A Short History of Their Contact from Ancient Times to the Fall of the Manchu Dynasty


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